Describing soils

The names people use for soils will always reflect the needs of the day and the understanding people have for the part soil plays in underpinning many of our activities.

These pages attempt to provide background information about the different naming systems that have been used over the years, and, where possible, indicate how they relate to each other.

Overview: History of soil description in a nutshell

A (very) brief history of soil description & classification in New Zealand.

Soil characterisation and sampling

Today's approach for characterising and sampling soils in the New Zealand landscape.

Soil maps and soil survey

Learn more about how soil maps are created by a soil survey.

New Zealand Soil Classification (NZSC)

The NZSC is the present day soil classification for New Zealand. It is in use since 1992.

Genetic Soil Classification (NZG)

The Genetic Soil Classification was the first soil classification for New Zealand. It was in use from 1948 to 1992, and followed by the NZSC.

Series names

Series names are used to distinguish similar soils at a finer level of classification than is possible with either the Genetic or NZSC classifications.

US Soil Taxonomy (ST)

An elaborate classification of soil types developed by United States Department of Agriculture and the National Cooperative Soil Survey

World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB)

An international soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps.

Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) Field Guide

The VSA Field Guide has been developed to help land managers assess soil quality easily, quickly, reliably and cheaply on a paddock scale.

IPCC soil categories

The New Zealand system for quantifying changes in the soil carbon reservoir